The Part of Information and facts and Interaction Systems (ICTs) in Combating Criminal offense in Sierra Leone

Alida

Introduction

I.C.Ts is extremely important in the environment in common and acquiring nations to be particular. I.C.Ts have developed considerable effects in many areas when it comes to national advancement. When we choose a appear at the economic system of the place, education and learning, faith, Social Science and Know-how we can see that I.C.Ts have contributed a lot in increasing these regions. You could tend to ponder how but as you go through together you will understand and see the importance of I.C.Ts in producing international locations (Johnson, 2008).

I.C.Ts refer to technologies that present accessibility to info by way of telecommunications. It is identical to facts engineering (I.T), but focuses mostly on conversation technologies. This contains the internet, wireless networks, cell phones, and other interaction mediums (Marke, 2003).

I.C.Ts are involved predominantly with facts management that is, acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical facts by a microelectronics centered interaction of personal computer and telecommunication as its main fields (Julliet, 2001).

The Purpose of ICTs in Organisations

If any firm like the Legal Investigation Department (CID) in Sierra Leone is to develop and establish then there must be effective and economical communication in the organisation. Data whether or not it is pictorial, textual, published or vocal form by way of which an info is communication from best to base or the reviser for the productive jogging of the business the use of I. C. T. is incredibly significant since it will make it quite easy via the use of mobile cell phone, computers and other devices that we use to connect information and facts is thanks to the simple fact that we have what we call I. C. Ts. (Johnson 2008).

• Via I. C.Ts. engineering person can have simple obtain to info through an e-mail through by this it save the time of the team just by means of by viewing his/her e-mail tackle he/she will know about the most recent enhancement in Legal Investigation Division, with no going to his/her or boss for details

• I. C. Ts. have played very important role in social media functions and the use of world-wide-web above the a long time and it is even now making favourable influence in our society now. Without I.C.Ts

• I.C.Ts. have manufactured it feasible for a person in just one state to get products from a different region, electronically from a 2nd and shell out for it electronically in a third.
I. C.Ts. Have changed the world industrial revolution forms from the mine tenth century and this adjust is long term, since it results in new economic pursuits, new relations of creation, new political forces, new position, and new outlook of daily life
• I.C.Ts. have performs great job in the health sector of Felony Investigation

Division by improving upon on health care recognition shipping and delivery and general public consciousness on critical health challenge. By I. C. Ts. 1 can will be in a position to have accessibility to healthcare details and trained professionals can lower suffering and will save lives (Peter, 2005).

Historical background of the (C. I.D) in Sierra Leone

The Sierra Leone Police Force is the brainchild of the British govt. Its inception dates as much back again as to 1808 when Freetown was declared a British Crown Colony. In the absence of a official arranged human body to preserve the peace, some retired British Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates ended up appointed by Magistrates to occur to Sierra Leone to maintain law and get. In between 1863-1888 the then Law enforcement Power experienced metamorphosed in get to deal with the unsightly incidents, which ended up rearing their heads specifically in the course of the 1881 Koya and 1888 Sherbro disturbances. These disturbances led to the improvement of police together the frontier. In 1889, as a result, the law enforcement was divided- military services and frontier duties were taken above by the Frontier Police white Civilian duties had been still left with the Frontier Police subsequently became recognized as the Courtroom Messenger Force, and were made accountable for the colony.

On the 27th October 1894, in the Royal Gazette of that date, the civil law enforcement in the colony ended up provided the designation “The Sierra Leone Law enforcement Pressure” – (S. L.P.F) which has remained unchanged to this day. Captain V.F. Laphan was seconded from the Military to handle the law enforcement drive, with the rank of superintendent and Mr. Brooks, a metropolitan law enforcement officer, was appointed inspector of police. In 1909 superintendent Brooks was appointed the initially commissioner of police.

No serious considerable strides took area in the force, right until, Mr. C. H. Ward, (O.B.E.) Superintendent of Law enforcement from Nigerian, took in excess of command of the pressure as Commissioner of Police sort Captain P. T. Brodie, in 1943. The energy of the drive was 300, which include two (2) expatriates, the Commissioner and the Assistant Commissioner and Africans crammed the rest the other ranks. The major civil disturbances led to the speedy introduction of the Riot Squad which was subsequently trained to comprise further more riots. Mr. Ward lifted the power to 600 and this developed a welcome and overdue enhance in marketing likelihood. For the 1st time Africans have been promoted to the rank of Assistant superintendent of Police (A. S. P) and a fleet of motor vehicles comprising cars, lorries, motor cycle and bicycles was later attained.

He begun the proper instruction school at Port Loko in 1944, which was afterwards transferred to the naval camp at hasting the place it stands to this working day. He also started off regional communications concerning law enforcement departments and at some point replace this by a police wireless interaction procedure which now cover the full nation. Mr. Ward was succeeded by J. P. I. Forde who elevated the energy to 1,000, despatched the to start with African sub-inspector to coach a Henden which ongoing thenceforth. He released the initial proper Drive STANDING ORDERS (F. S. O.) the police FEDERATION and Police COUNICIL. In 1952 Mr. W. G. Syer took about and squandered no time in getting policing to the provinces which resulted in its enlargement. He affiliated the police force to International Law enforcement Group (INTERPOL) and disbanded the Riot Squad, there by introducing a procedure in which each individual police officer was taught not responsibilities no make any difference what segment of the power he may perhaps be hooked up to.

Amongst 1963-1969 Mr. L. W. Leigh turned the 1st Sierra Leonean Commissioner of Police and less than his management a police Act was proven in 1964 which was meant to consolidate and amend the regulations relating to the Sierra Leone police power that is, the security of lifetime and assets, the avoidance and detection of criminal offense and the apprehension of offenders involving 1969-1972, Mr. Jenkins M.E.G Smith became the 2nd Sierra Leone commissioner of law enforcement who led the force by means of Republic in 1971.

The uniform at this time consisted of grey shorts and gray jacket with black sneakers and cummerbund. Section 174 of the Sierra Leone Structure of 1978 adjusted the classic job of the power by the appointment of the 10 Commissioners of Law enforcement, Mr. P. C. Kaetu Smith [1973- 1979] as just one of the 7 (7) appointed users of parliament by the Govt president, hence politicizing the part of the law enforcement drive.

Involving 1981- 1984, Honorable C Kaetu Smith was succeeded by Hon. J. A. Grant. In 1986, Hon. P. M. Johnson gets to be the first inspector – Basic of police. On the 1st of January, 1987, the pressure was re- divisionalized into law enforcement divisions each division staying represented by letters, ranging from “A” to “N” and just about every division commanded by a chief police officer [C. P. O]. These were being even more sub-divided into police Districts and positioned beneath the command of the officer commanding districts [o/c] who might be a Deputy Superintendent of law enforcement or Assistant Superintendent of Police (A.S.P.).

In 1987 Hon. James Bambay Kamara succeeded by Mr. P.M. Johnson. In December, 1991, in a bid to redeem the excellent picture of the Sierra Leone Police Power which had significantly dented by politics, the British Government despatched Mr. Keith Lewis, a retired British Superintendent of Police to restructure the drive. A series of law enforcement courses were then released into the curriculum in get to greatly enhance the force in policing a modern democratic society instruction programs like the Junior and Senior Management Classes Trainers training course, prison investigation Division training course acknowledged as the Yorkshire System was released which went a extended way to restructure the law enforcement.

The democratically elected Govt of Dr. Ahmed Tejan Kabba in 1996 solicited the services of the British Authorities to enable further restructure the Sierra Leone Law enforcement Drive. The British Governing administration responded by sending a group recognized as the Commonwealth Law enforcement Growth Process Force. which was headed by the Inspector-Basic of law enforcement, Mr. Kieth Biddle.Underneath the dynamic management of the British born Inspector- Normal of law enforcement, the Sierra Leone police drive is gradually regained the confidence of the public by way of the alter management beneath the new restructured application, so that the drive can come to be “Power For Good’ which is its recognized for right now. (Sierra Leone Police Prospectus 2014).

Things to do of Felony Investigation Department (CID)

The adhering to are the actions untaken by CID of the Sierra Leone Police:

Documentation

Crimes scene investigators are billed with the accountability of formally documenting the criminal offense scene. This documentation is normally permanent and constitutes the official history of the investigation. It can be forwarded to officers and regulation enforcement companies for additional use and investigation. Documentation involves photograph, diagrams and sketches, and penned notes. At this level, the crimes scene investigation typically make some sort of first interpretation of the evidence at hand and document the actions taken by the investigators at the steps taken by the investigators at the scene Efficient documentation enables for an accurate re-party, this kind of as a forensics workforce.

Authorized Obligations

The investigator must have out a range of legal obligations in relation to past perform. Primarily based on their investigation, criminal offense scene investigators assistance legal professionals and other authorized officials prepare legal proceedings. They typically meet to demonstrate their formal reviews and the proof, producing certain it can be comprehended. Investigators also are called on to testify in courtroom, the place they are the foremost authority on what was located on the scene and what conclusions ended up drawn.

They should be able to demonstrate what the proof suggests and why selected conclusions appear powerful based mostly on investigation. Criminal offense scene investigators have to also be common with Nationwide and point out regulations and with suitable case regulation to put the proof in point of view.

Proof Selection

Once the scene has been secured, surveyed and documented, the crime scene investigator potential customers an hard work to obtain appropriate proof. This process can be sluggish and necessitates a excellent offer of patience, as properly as the skill to proficiently converse and collaborate with other individuals. An means to thoroughly and delicately deploy devices is paramount listed here. Proof, these as content articles of clothes hair, nail clippings and fiber samples, ought to be gathered in this sort of a manner that its integrity is preserved. Labeled and sealed pouches sustain the integrity of the evidence as very well as the chain of custody. The investigator also is liable for sustaining the integrity of the criminal offense scene by roping off the area, keeping witnesses from tampering with evidence and earning spots exactly where proof was gathered.

Look for

The preliminary search, also identified as scene recognition, is the initially walkthrough that or criminal offense scene investigator can take. On the 1st examination, the criminal offense scene investigator develops a approach to approach the scene and apprehend proof. This can involve variables these kinds of as what directing to go in, prioritizing evidence that could vanish or be harmed and figuring out what gear and sources are vital to effectively consider inventory of the situation. The crime scene investigator can assemble and guide the group to look into the scene and obtain proof. Murder scenes, for illustration, may call for investigators to acquire blood and tissue samples, fingerprint, shoe casings. A robbery could need fingerprints, from factors of entry and other surfaces the burglar might have touched.

Illustrations of ICTs used by the C I D

In fashionable occasions, policing has been done with the use of technological items to empower them carryout their functions with the simplicity and for helpful and productive provider shipping and delivery. ICTs. refer to systems that deliver access to info, as a result of telecommunication which is equivalent to info technology (I T), but listed here target is principally on conversation technologies. This consists of the world-wide-web, wireless networks, mobile telephones and other communication media The adhering to information communication systems are applied by the CID of the Sierra Leone police

• Shut-Circuit tv (CCTV): to keep track of occasions/ happenings in just their parts of responsibilities and to be applied as pictorial/ visible evidence in court docket and for information purposes.

• Digital Cameras: these are made use of to just take snap shots of help successful and economical investigations with authentic evidence to be tendered in court as evidence.

• Motorists: these are made use of to help you save/preserve useful data about an investigation these as progress experiences, abstract reports, summary of proof, and proceedings/rulings about a make any difference.

• Picture Copiers: they are generally used to duplicate experiences and other documents to be distributed to numerous authorities concerned for their personal directives and important action.

• Scanners: these are most common now as a result of terrorist threats and can be employed for individuals, autos and for baggage’s in order to detect / stop crime and the worry of criminal offense and to restore self-confidence in the populace. It can be utilised to detect any offensive objects/ weapons and to reduce any mishap.

• Computers: are now typically made use of to examine legal globally. With the aid of pcs, the Interpol can keep track of criminals from every continent and the many law enforcement headquarters can liaise with every other to get the sought after result. Also, could computing has been so much influential investigations in order to track down the in which about of criminals and to monitor their acts/actions and accomplices.

Difficulties involved with the use of ICTs and info supply of the CID in the Sierra Leone Police.

• Power Difficulties: Absence of steady and inexpensive electric power is the best obstacle in planning a computing infrastructure for legal facts (or any other software that make a difference). The large greater part of felony investigation services in the legal investigation section have no most important power and, exactly where offered, this kind of energy is typically incredibly unreliable or so unstable that it poses a danger to unprotected digital machines.

• Environmental Troubles: The actual physical ecosystem in Sierra Leone and in most other places in the state is characterized by some mix of heat, dust and humidity, every single of which is a challenge for common pcs. Substantial speed Central Processing Models deliver great quantities of warmth that, if not thoroughly dissipated, reduces efficiency or can render these devices in operable. Dust threatens delicate electronics by shorting circuits and impeding airflow and warmth dissipation. Humidity potential customers to condensation corrosion and even mildew, all of which can lead to electrical challenges and quite possibly shorten devices lifespan.

• Connectivity Worries: Deficiency of cost-effective connectivity and bandwidth in the major impediment to numerous of the most promising criminal investigation purposes in the CID, which includes training initiatives and other authentic- time guidance Deficiency of connectivity also complicates a lot more essential initiatives to gather and analyse felony information and facts.

Summary

It is significantly very clear that info is the lifetime blood of the CID technique. Exact, well timed and available criminal offense data strengthens pretty much each aspect of the process, from plan creating, to logistic and training. In contrast, inefficient crime data units suffer from an data anemia that weakens the program.

Unfortunately, all also many criminal offense systems in the acquiring planet nevertheless go through from the equal details shock, a method threaten affliction characterised by the lack of ability to deliver accessibility or act on even the most necessary crime facts. Achievements or failure of ICTs deployment in Prison Investigation Division depends on access to economical, integrated answers that are equally sustainable in very low resource setting and adaptable to nearby situation invented is actively creating and deploying this kind of program specially to deal with this have to have. It is for that reason quite necessary to note that ICTs participate in a essential and vital purpose in boosting the effective provision, administration and shipping and delivery of info in combating crimes.

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